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commit 3b77e5505efd891dc133097cd08961690daf8867
parent 8190241d39dd11e2ec4cd9e33edfec9da231941f
Author: Alexander Burger <abu@software-lab.de>
Date:   Wed,  9 May 2012 15:29:25 +0200

In Detail: Native C Calls
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diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL @@ -1,4 +1,4 @@ -10jan12abu +02may12abu (c) Software Lab. Alexander Burger @@ -155,8 +155,9 @@ instead of './dbg' or './pil +'. ------------- For further information, please look at "doc/index.html". There you find the -PicoLisp Reference Manual (doc/ref.html), the PicoLisp tutorials (doc/tut.html -and doc/app.html), and the frequently asked questions (doc/faq.html). +PicoLisp Reference Manual ("doc/ref.html"), the PicoLisp tutorials +("doc/tut.html", "doc/app.html", "doc/select.html" and "doc/native.html"), and +the frequently asked questions ("doc/faq.html"). For details about the 64-bit version, refer to "doc64/README", "doc64/asm" and "doc64/structures". diff --git a/doc/native.html b/doc/native.html @@ -0,0 +1,748 @@ +<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-html40-19980424/loose.dtd"> +<html lang="en"> +<head> +<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> +<title>Native C Calls</title> +<link rel="stylesheet" href="doc.css" type="text/css"> +</head> +<body> +<a href="mailto:abu@software-lab.de">abu@software-lab.de</a> + +<h1>Native C Calls</h1> + +<p align=right>(c) Software Lab. Alexander Burger + +<p>This document describes how to call C functions in shared object files +(libraries) from PicoLisp, using the built-in <code><a +href="refN.html#native">native</a></code> function -- possibly with the help of +the <code><a href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code> and <code><a +href="refL.html#lisp">lisp</a></code> functions. It applies only to the 64-bit +version of PicoLisp. + +<p><ul> +<li><a href="#overview">Overview</a> +<li><a href="#syntax">Syntax</a> + <ul> + <li><a href="#libs">Libraries</a> + <li><a href="#funs">Functions</a> + <li><a href="#retval">Return Value</a> + <ul> + <li><a href="#primRet">Primitive Types</a> + <li><a href="#structRet">Arrays and Structures</a> + </ul> + <li><a href="#args">Arguments</a> + <ul> + <li><a href="#primArg">Primitive Types</a> + <li><a href="#structArg">Arrays and Structures</a> + </ul> + </ul> +<li><a href="#memory">Memory Management</a> + <ul> + <li><a href="#fftw">Fast Fourier Transform</a> + <li><a href="#const">Constant Data</a> + </ul> +<li><a href="#callbacks">Callbacks</a> + <ul> + <li><a href="#byName">Call by Name</a> + <li><a href="#funptr">Function Pointer</a> + </ul> +</ul> + + +<p><hr> +<h2><a name="overview">Overview</a></h2> + +<p><code>native</code> calls a C function in a shared library. It tries to + +<p><ol> +<li>find a library by name +<li>find a function by name in the library +<li>convert the function's argument(s) from Lisp to C structures +<li>call the function's C code +<li>convert the function's return value(s) from C to Lisp structures +</ol> + +<p>The direct return value of <code>native</code> is the Lisp representation of +the C function's return value. Further values, returned by reference from the C +function, are available in Lisp variables (symbol values). + +<p><code>struct</code> is a helper function, which can be used to manipulate C +data structures in memory. It may take a scalar (a numeric representation of a C +value) to convert it to a Lisp item, or (more typically) a pointer to a memory +area to build and extract data structures. <code>lisp</code> allows you to +install callback functions, callable from C code, written in Lisp. + +<p>In combination, these three functions can interface PicoLisp to almost any C +function. + +<p>The above steps are fully dynamic; <code>native</code> doesn't have (and +doesn't require) a priory knowledge about the library, the function or the +involved data. No need to write any glue code, interfaces or include files. All +functions can even be called interactively from the REPL. + + +<p><hr> +<h2><a name="syntax">Syntax</a></h2> + +<p>The arguments to <code>native</code> are + +<p><ol> +<li>a library +<li>a function +<li>a return value specification +<li>optional arguments +</ol> + +<p>The simplest form is a call to a function without return value and without +arguments. If we assume a library "lib.so", containing a function with the +prototype + +<pre><code> +void fun(void); +</code></pre> + +<p>then we can call it as + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun") +</code></pre> + + +<p><hr> +<h3><a name="libs">Libraries</a></h3> + +<p>The first argument to <code>native</code> specifies the library. It is either +the <i>name</i> of a library (a symbol), or the <i>handle</i> of a previously +found library (a number). + +<p>As a special case, a transient symbol <code>"@"</code> can be passed for the +library name. It then refers to the current main program (instead of an external +library), and can be used for standard functions like <code>"malloc"</code> or +<code>"printf"</code>. + +<p><code>native</code> uses <code>dlopen(3)</code> internally to find and open +the library, and to obtain the handle. If the name contains a slash ('/'), then +it is interpreted as a (relative or absolute) pathname. Otherwise, the dynamic +linker searches for the library according to the system's environment and +directories. See the man page of <code>dlopen(3)</code> for further details. + +<p>If called with a symbolic argument, <code>native</code> automatically caches +the handle of the found library in the value of that symbol. The most natural +way is to pass the library name as a <a href="ref.html#transient">transient</a> +symbol (<code>"lib.so"</code> above): The initial value of a transient symbol is +that symbol itself, so that <code>native</code> receives the library name upon +the first call. After successfully finding and opening the library, +<code>native</code> stores the handle of that library in the value of the passed +symbol (<code>"lib.so"</code>). As <code>native</code> evaluates its arguments +in the normal way, subsequent calls within the same transient scope will receive +the numeric value (the handle), and don't need to open and search the library +again. + + +<p><hr> +<h3><a name="funs">Functions</a></h3> + +<p>The same rules applies to the second argument, the function. When called with +a symbol, <code>native</code> stores the function pointer in its value, so that +subsequent calls evaluate to that pointer, and <code>native</code> can directly +jump to the function. + +<p><code>native</code> uses <code>dlsym(3)</code> internally to obtain the +function pointer. See the man page of <code>dlsym(3)</code> for further details. + +<p>In most cases a program will call more than one function from a given +library. If we keep the code within the same transient scope (i.e. in the same +source file, and not separated by the <code><a +href="ref_.html#====">====</a></code> function), each library will be opened -- +and each function searched -- only once. + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun1") +(native "lib.so" "fun2") +(native "lib.so" "fun3") +</code></pre> + +<p>After <code>"fun1"</code> was called, <code>"lib.so"</code> will be open, and +won't be re-opened for <code>"fun2"</code> and <code>"fun3"</code>. Consider +the definition of helper functions: + +<pre><code> +(de fun1 () + (native "lib.so" "fun1") ) + +(de fun2 () + (native "lib.so" "fun2") ) + +(de fun3 () + (native "lib.so" "fun3") ) +</code></pre> + +<p>After any one of <code>fun1</code>, <code>fun2</code> or <code>fun3</code> +was called, the symbol <code>"lib.so"</code> will hold the library handle. And +each function function <code>"fun1"</code>, <code>"fun2"</code> and +<code>"fun3"</code> will be searched only when called the first time. + +<p>Warning: It should be avoided to put more than one library into a single +transient scope if there is a chance that two different functions with the same +name will be called in two different libraries. Because of the function pointer +caching, the second call would otherwise (wrongly) go to the first function. + + + +<p><hr> +<h3><a name="retval">Return Value</a></h3> + +<p>The (optional) third argument to <code>native</code> specifies the return +value. A C function can return many types of values, like integer or floating +point numbers, string pointers, or pointers to structures which in turn consist +of those types, and even other structures or pointers to structures. +<code>native</code> tries to cover most of them. + +<p>As described in the <a href="refN.html#natResult">result specification</a>, +the third argument should consist of a pattern which tells <code>native</code> +how to extract the proper value. + + +<h4><a name="primRet">Primitive Types</a></h4> + +<p>In the simplest case, the result specification is <code>NIL</code> like in +the examples so far. This means that either the C function returns +<code>void</code>, or that we are not interested in the value. The return value +of <code>native</code> will be <code>NIL</code> in that case. + +<p>If the result specification is one of the symbols <code>B</code>, +<code>I</code> or <code>N</code>, an integer number is returned, by interpreting +the result as a <code>char</code> (8 bit unsigned byte), <code>int</code> (32 +bit signed integer), or <code>long</code> number (64 bit signed integer), +respectively. Other (signed or unsigned numbers, and of different sizes) can be +produced from these types with logical and arithmetic operations if necessary. + +<p>If the result specification is the symbol <code>C</code>, the result is +interpreted as a 16 bit number, and a single-char transient symbol (string) is +returned. + +<p>A specification of <code>S</code> tells <code>native</code> to interpret the +result as a pointer to a C string (null terminated), and to return a transient +symbol (string). + +<p>If the result specification is a number, it will be used as a scale to +convert a returned <code>double</code> (if the number is positive) or +<code>float</code> (if the number is negative) to a scaled fixpoint number. + +<p>Examples for function calls, with their corresponding C prototypes: + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" 'I) # int fun(void); +(native "lib.so" "fun" 'N) # long fun(void); +(native "lib.so" "fun" 'N) # void *fun(void); +(native "lib.so" "fun" 'S) # char *fun(void); +(native "lib.so" "fun" 1.0) # double fun(void); +</code></pre> + + +<h4><a name="structRet">Arrays and Structures</a></h4> + +<p>If the result specification is a list, it means that the C function returned +a pointer to an array, or an arbitrary memory structure. The specification list +should then consist of either the above primitive specifications (symbols or +numbers), or of cons pairs of a primitive specification and a repeat count, to +denote arrays of the given type. + +<p>Examples for function calls, with their corresponding pseudo C prototypes: + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" '(I . 8)) # int *fun(void); // 8 integers +(native "lib.so" "fun" '(B . 16)) # unsigned char *fun(void); // 16 bytes + +(native "lib.so" "fun" '(I I)) # struct {int i; int j;} *fun(void); +(native "lib.so" "fun" '(I . 4)) # struct {int i[4];} *fun(void); + +(native "lib.so" "fun" '(I (B . 4))) # struct { + # int i; + # unsigned char c[4]; + # } *fun(void); + +(native "lib.so" "fun" # struct { + '(((B . 4) I) (S . 12) (N . 8)) ) # struct {unsigned char c[4]; int i;} + # char *names[12]; + # long num[8]; + # } *fun(void); +</code></pre> + +<p>If a returned structure has an element which is a <i>pointer</i> to some +other structure (i.e. not an embedded structure like in the last example above), +this pointer must be first obtained with a <code>N</code> pattern, which can +then be passed to <code><a href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code> for further +extraction. + + +<p><hr> +<h3><a name="args">Arguments</a></h3> + +<p>The (optional) fourth and following arguments to <code>native</code> specify +the arguments to the C function. + + +<h4><a name="primArg">Primitive Types</a></h4> + +<p>Integer arguments (up to 64 bits, signed or unsigned <code>char</code>, +<code>short</code>, <code>int</code> or <code>long</code>) can be passed as they +are: As numbers. + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" NIL 123) # void fun(int); +(native "lib.so" "fun" NIL 1 2 3) # void fun(int, long, short); +</code></pre> + +<p>String arguments can be specified as symbols. <code>native</code> allocates +memory for each string (with <code>strdup(3)</code>), passes the pointer to the +C function, and releases the memory (with <code>free(3)</code>) when done. + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" NIL "abc") # void fun(char*); +(native "lib.so" "fun" NIL 3 "def") # void fun(int, char*); +</code></pre> + +<p>Note that the allocated string memory is released <i>after</i> the return +value is extracted. This allows a C function to return the argument string +pointer, perhaps after modifying the data in-place, and receive the new string +as the return value (with the <code>S</code> specification). + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" 'S "abc") # char *fun(char*); +</code></pre> + +<p>Also note that specifying <code>NIL</code> as an argument passes an empty +string ("", which also reads as <code>NIL</code> in PicoLisp) to the C function. +Physically, this is a pointer to a NULL-byte, and is <u>not</u> a NULL-pointer. +Be sure to pass <code>0</code> (the number zero) if a NULL-pointer is desired. + +<p>Floating point arguments are specified as cons pairs, where the value is in +the CAR, and the CDR holds the fixpoint scale. If the scale is positive, the +number is passed as a <code>double</code>, otherwise as a <code>float</code>. + +<pre><code> +(native "lib.so" "fun" NIL # void fun(double, float); + (12.3 . 1.0) (4.56 . -1.0) ) +</code></pre> + + +<h4><a name="structArg">Arrays and Structures</a></h4> + +<p>Composite arguments are specified as nested list structures. +<code>native</code> allocates memory for each array or structure (with +<code>malloc(3)</code>), passes the pointer to the C function, and releases the +memory (with <code>free(3)</code>) when done. + +<p>This implies that such an argument can be both an input and an output value +to a C function (pass by reference). + +<p>The CAR of the argument specification can be <code>NIL</code> (then it is an +input-only argument). Otherwise, it should be a variable which receives the +returned structure data. + +<p>The CADR of the argument specification must be a cons pair with the total +size of the structure in its CAR. The CDR is ignored for input-only arguments, +and should contain a <a href="refN.html#natResult">result specification</a> for +the output value to be stored in the variable. + +<p>For example, a minimal case is a function that takes an integer reference, +and stores the number '123' in that location: + +<pre><code> +void fun(int *i) { + *i = 123; +} +</code></pre> + +<p>We call <code>native</code> with a variable <code>X</code> in the CAR of the +argument specification, a size of 4 (i.e. <code>sizeof(int)</code>), and +<code>I</code> for the result specification. The stored value is then available +in the variable <code>X</code>: + +<pre><code> +: (native "lib.so" "fun" NIL '(X (4 . I))) +-> NIL +: X +-> 123 +</code></pre> + +<p>The rest (CDDR) of the argument specification may contain initialization +data, if the C function expects input values in the structure. It should be a +list of <a href="refN.html#natItem">initialization items</a>, optionally with a +fill-byte value in the CDR of the last cell. + +<p>If there are <i>no</i> initialization items and just the final fill-bye, then +the whole buffer is filled with that byte. For example, to pass a buffer of 20 +bytes, initialized to zero: + +<pre><code> +: (native "lib.so" "fun" NIL '(NIL (20) . 0)) +</code></pre> + +<p>A buffer of 20 bytes, with the first 4 bytes initialized to 1, 2, 3, and 4, +and the rest filled with zero: + +<pre><code> +: (native "lib.so" "fun" NIL '(NIL (20) 1 2 3 4 . 0)) +</code></pre> + +<p>and the same, where the buffer contents are returned as a list of bytes in +the variable <code>X</code>: + +<pre><code> +: (native "lib.so" "fun" NIL '(X (20 B . 20) 1 2 3 4 . 0)) +</code></pre> + +<p>For a more extensive example, let's use the following definitions: + +<pre><code> +typedef struct value { + int x, y; + double a, b, c; + int z; + char nm[4]; +} value; + +void fun(value *val) { + printf("%d %d\n", val->x, val->y); + val->x = 3; + val->y = 4; + strcpy(val->nm, "OK"); +} +</code></pre> + +<p>We call this function with a structure of 40 bytes, requesting the returned +data in <code>V</code>, with two integers <code>(I . 2)</code>, three doubles +<code>(100 . 3)</code> with a scale of 2 (1.0 = 100), another integer +<code>I</code> and four characters <code>(C . 2)</code>. If the structure gets +initialized with two integers 7 and 6, three doubles 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33, and +another integer 5 while the rest of the 40 bytes is cleared to zero + +<pre><code> +: (native "lib.so" "fun" NIL + '(V (40 (I . 2) (100 . 3) I (C . 4)) -7 -6 (100 11 22 33) -5 . 0) ) +</code></pre> + +<p>then it will print the integers 7 and 6, and <code>V</code> will contain the +returned list + +<pre><code> +((3 4) (11 22 33) 5 ("O" "K" NIL NIL)) +</code></pre> + +<p>i.e. the original integer values 7 and 6 replaced with 3 and 4. + +<p>Note that the allocated structure memory is released <i>after</i> the return +value is extracted. This allows a C function to return the argument structure +pointer, perhaps after modifying the data in-place, and receive the new +structure as the return value -- instead of (or even in addition to) to the +direct return via the argument reference. + + +<p><hr> +<h2><a name="memory">Memory Management</a></h2> + +<p>The preceding <a href="#args">Arguments</a> section mentions that +<code>native</code> implicitly allocates and releases memory for strings, arrays +and structures. + +<p>Technically, this mimics <i>automatic variables</i> in C. + +<p>For a simple example, let's assume that we want to call <code>read(2)</code> +directly, to fetch a 4-byte integer from a given file descriptor. This could be +done with the following C function: + +<pre><code> +int read4bytes(int fd) { + char buf[4]; + + read(fd, buf, 4); + return *(int*)buf; +} +</code></pre> + +<p><code>buf</code> is an automatic variable, allocated on the stack, which +disappears when the function returns. A corresponding <code>native</code> call +would be: + +<pre><code> +(native "@" "read" 'N Fd '(Buf (4 . I)) 4) +</code></pre> + +<p>The structure argument <code>(Buf (4 . I))</code> says that a space of 4 +bytes should be allocated and passed to <code>read</code>, then an integer +<code>I</code> returned in the variable <code>Buf</code> (the return value of +<code>native</code> itself is the number returned by <code>read</code>). The +memory space is released after that. + +<p>(Note that we use <code>"@"</code> for the library here, as <code>read</code> +resides in the main program.) + +<p>Instead of a single integer, we might want a list of four bytes to be +returned from <code>native</code>: + +<pre><code> +(native "@" "read" 'N Fd '(Buf (4 B . 4)) 4) +</code></pre> + +<p>The difference is that we wrote <code>(B . 4)</code> (a list of 4 bytes) +instead of <code>I</code> (a single integer) for the <a +href="refN.html#natResult">result specification</a> (see the <a +href="#structArg">Arrays and Structures</a> section). + +<p>Let's see what happens if we extend this example. We'll write the four bytes +to another file descriptor, after reading them from the first one: + +<pre><code> +void copy4bytes(int fd1, int fd2) { + char buf[4]; + + read(fd1, buf, 4); + write(fd2, buf, 4); +} +</code></pre> + +<p>Again, <code>buf</code> is an automatic variable. It is passed to both +<code>read</code> and <code>write</code>. A direct translation would be: + +<pre><code> +(native "@" "read" 'N Fd '(Buf (4 B . 4)) 4) +(native "@" "write" 'N Fd (cons NIL (4) Buf) 4) +</code></pre> + +<p>This work as expected. <code>read</code> returns a list of four bytes in +<code>Buf</code>. The call to <code>cons</code> builds the structure + +<pre><code> +(NIL (4) 1 2 3 4) +</code></pre> + +<p>i.e. no return variable, a four-byte memory area, filled with the four bytes +(assuming that <code>read</code> returned 1, 2, 3 and 4). Then this structure is +passed to <code>write</code>. + +<p>But: This solution induces quite some overhead. The four-byte buffer is +allocated before the call to <code>read</code> and released after that, then +allocated and released again for <code>write</code>. Also, the bytes are +converted to a list to be stored in <code>Buf</code>, then that list is extended +for the structure argument to <code>write</code>, and converted again back to +the raw byte array. The data in the list itself are never used. + +<p>If the above operation is to be used more than once, it is better to allocate +the buffer manually, use it for both reading and writing, and then release it. +This also avoids all intermediate list conversions. + +<pre><code> +(let Buf (native "@" "malloc" 'N 4) # Allocate memory + (native "@" "read" 'N Fd Buf 4) # (Possibly repeat this several times) + (native "@" "write" 'N Fd Buf 4) + (native "@" "free" NIL Buf) ) # Release memory +</code></pre> + + +<h4><a name="fftw">Fast Fourier Transform</a></h4> + +<p>For a more typical example, we might call the Fast Fourier Transform using +the library from the <a href="http://fftw.org">FFTW</a> package. With the +example code for calculating Complex One-Dimensional DFTs: + +<pre><code> +#include &lt;fftw3.h&gt; +... +{ + fftw_complex *in, *out; + fftw_plan p; + ... + in = (fftw_complex*) fftw_malloc(sizeof(fftw_complex) * N); + out = (fftw_complex*) fftw_malloc(sizeof(fftw_complex) * N); + p = fftw_plan_dft_1d(N, in, out, FFTW_FORWARD, FFTW_ESTIMATE); + ... + fftw_execute(p); /* repeat as needed */ + ... + fftw_destroy_plan(p); + fftw_free(in); fftw_free(out); +} +</code></pre> + +<p>we can build the following equivalent: + +<pre><code> +(load "@lib/math.l") + +(de FFTW_FORWARD . -1) +(de FFTW_ESTIMATE . 64) + +(de fft (Lst) + (let + (Len (length Lst) + In (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_malloc" 'N (* Len 16)) + Out (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_malloc" 'N (* Len 16)) + P (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_plan_dft_1d" 'N + Len In Out FFTW_FORWARD FFTW_ESTIMATE ) ) + (struct In NIL (cons 1.0 (apply append Lst))) + (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_execute" NIL P) + (prog1 (struct Out (make (do Len (link (1.0 . 2))))) + (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_destroy_plan" NIL P) + (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_free" NIL Out) + (native "libfftw3.so" "fftw_free" NIL In) ) ) ) +</code></pre> + +<p>This assumes that the argument list <code>Lst</code> is passed as a list +of complex numbers, each as a list of two numbers for the real and imaginary +part, like + +<pre><code> +(fft '((1.0 0) (1.0 0) (1.0 0) (1.0 0) (0 0) (0 0) (0 0) (0 0))) +</code></pre> + +<p>The above translation to Lisp is quite straightforward. After the two buffers +are allocated, and a plan is created, <code><a +href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code> is called to store the argument list +in the <code>In</code> structure as a list of double numbers (according to the +<code>1.0</code> <a href="refN.html#natItem">initialization item</a>). Then +<code>fftw_execute</code> is called, and <code>struct</code> is called again to +retrieve the result from <code>Out</code> and return it from <code>fft</code> +via the <code><a href="refP.html#prog1">prog1</a></code>. Finally, all memory is +released. + + +<h4><a name="const">Constant Data</a></h4> + +<p>If such allocated data (strings, arrays or structures passed to +<code>native</code>) are constant during the lifetime of a program, it makes +sense to allocate them only once, before their first use. A typical candidate is +the format string of a <code>printf</code> call. Consider a function which +prints a floating point number in scientific notation: + +<pre><code> +(load "@lib/math.l") + +: (de prf (Flt) + (native "@" "printf" NIL "%e^J" (cons Flt 1.0)) ) +-> prf + +: (prf (exp 12.3)) +2.196960e+05 +</code></pre> + +<p>As we know that the format string <code>"%e^J"</code> will be converted from +a Lisp symbol to a C string with <code>strdup</code> -- and then thrown away -- +on each call to <code>prf</code>, we might as well perform a little optimization +and delegate this conversion to the program load time: + +<pre><code> +: (de prf (Flt) + (native "@" "printf" NIL `(native "@" "strdup" 'N "%e^J") (cons Flt 1.0)) ) +-> prf + +: (prf (exp 12.3)) +2.196960e+05 +</code></pre> + +<p>If we look at the <code>prf</code> function, we see that it now contains the +pointer to the allocated string memory: + +<pre><code> +: (pp 'prf) +(de prf (Flt) + (native "@" "printf" NIL 24662032 (cons Flt 1000000)) ) +-> prf +</code></pre> + +<p>This pointer will be used by <code>printf</code> directly, without any +further conversion or memory management. + + +<p><hr> +<h2><a name="callbacks">Callbacks</a></h2> + +<p>Sometimes it is necessary to do the reverse: Call Lisp code from C code. This +can be done in two ways -- with certain limitations. + + +<h4><a name="byName">Call by Name</a></h4> + +<p>The first way is actually not a <a +href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callback_(computer_programming)">callback</a> +in the strict sense. It just allows to call a Lisp function with a given name. + +<p>The limitation is that this function can accept only maximally five numeric +arguments, and returns a number. + +<p>The prerequisite is, of course, that you have access to the C source code. To +use it from C, insert the following prototype somewhere before the first call: + +<pre><code> +long lisp(char*,long,long,long,long,long); +</code></pre> + +<p>Then you can call <code>lisp</code> from C: + +<pre><code> +long n = lisp("myLispFun", a, b, 0, 0, 0); +</code></pre> + +<p>The first argument should be the name of a Lisp function (built-in, or +defined in Lisp). It is searched for at runtime, so it doesn't need to exist at +the time the C library is compiled or loaded. + +<p>Be sure to pass dummy arguments (e.g. zero) if your function expects less +than five arguments, to keep the C compiler happy. + +<p>This mechanism can generally be used for any type of argument and return +value (not only <code>long</code>). On the C side, appropriate casts or a +adapted prototype should be used. It is then up to the called Lisp function to +prepare and/or extract the proper data with <code><a +href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code> and memory management operations. + + +<h4><a name="funptr">Function Pointer</a></h4> + +<p>This is a true <a +href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callback_(computer_programming)">callback</a> +mechanism. It uses the Lisp-level function <code><a +href="refL.html#lisp">lisp</a></code> (not to confuse with the C-level function +with the same name in the previous section). No C source code access is +required. + +<p><code>lisp</code> returns a function pointer, which can be passed to C +functions via <code>native</code>. When this function pointer is dereferenced +and called from the C code, the corresponding Lisp function is invoked. Here, +too, only five numeric arguments and a numeric return value can be used, and +other data types must be handled by the Lisp function with <code><a +href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code> and memory management operations. + +<p>Callbacks are often used in user interface libraries, to handle key-, mouse- +and other events. Examples can be found in <code>"@lib/openGl.l"</code>. The +following function <code>mouseFunc</code> takes a Lisp function, installs it +under the tag <code>mouseFunc</code> (any other tag would be all right too) as a +callback, and passes the resulting function pointer to the OpenGL +<code>glutMouseFunc()</code> function, to set it as a callback for the current +window: + +<pre><code> +(de mouseFunc (Fun) + (native `*GlutLib "glutMouseFunc" NIL (lisp 'mouseFunc Fun)) ) +</code></pre> + +<p>(The global <code>*GlutLib</code> holds the library +<code>"/usr/lib/libglut.so"</code>. The backquote (<code>`</code>) is important +here, so that the transient symbol with the library name (and not the global +<code>*GlutLib</code>) is evaluated by <code>native</code>, resulting in the +proper library handle at runtime). + +<p>A program using OpenGL may then use <code>mouseFunc</code> to install a +function + +<pre><code> +(mouseFunc + '((Btn State X Y) + (do-something-with Btn State X Y) ) ) +</code></pre> + +<p>so that future clicks into the window will pass the button, state and +coordinates to that function. + +</body> +</html> diff --git a/doc/refL.html b/doc/refL.html @@ -297,7 +297,8 @@ the corresponding entry is freed. Maximally 24 callback functions can be installed that way. 'fun' should be a function of maximally five numbers, and should return a number. "Numbers" in this context are 64-bit scalars, and may not only represent integers, but also pointers or other encoded data. See also -<code><a href="refN.html#native">native</a></code>. +<code><a href="refN.html#native">native</a></code> and <code><a +href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code>. <pre><code> (load "lib/native.l") diff --git a/doc/refN.html b/doc/refN.html @@ -138,8 +138,8 @@ by a previous call). Practically, the first two arguments will be always passed as transient symbols, which will get the library handle and function pointer assigned as values to be cached and used in subsequent calls. The third argument <code>any</code> is a result specification, while all following arguments are -the arguments to the native function. See also <code><a -href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code>. +the arguments to the native function. The functionality is described in detail +in <a href="native.html">Native C Calls</a>. <p><a name="natResult">The result specification</a> may either be one of the atoms @@ -205,6 +205,20 @@ structures, and frees that memory when done. <p>The number of fixpoint arguments is limited to six. For NaN or negative infinity <code>NIL</code>, and for positive infinity <code>T</code> is returned. +<p>The C function may in turn call a function + +<pre><code> + long lisp(char*, long, long, long, long, long); +</code></pre> + +<p>which accepts a symbol name as the first argument, and up to 5 numbers. +<code>lisp()</code> calls that symbol with the five numbers, and expects a +numeric return value. "Numbers" in this context are 64-bit scalars, and may not +only represent integers, but also pointers or other encoded data. See also +<code><a href="refS.html#struct">struct</a></code>, <code><a +href="refL.html#lisp">lisp</a></code> and <code><a +href="refE.html#errno">errno</a></code>. + <pre><code> : (native "@" "getenv" 'S "TERM") # Same as (sys "TERM") -> "xterm" @@ -221,21 +235,11 @@ This is 123.456 (native "@" "time" NIL '(Tim (8 B . 8))) # time_t 8 # Get time_t structure (native "@" "localtime" '(I . 9) (cons NIL (8) Tim)) ) # Read local time -> (32 18 13 31 11 109 4 364 0) # 13:18:32, Dec. 31st, 2009 -</code></pre> - -<p>The C function may in turn call a function -<pre><code> - long lisp(char*, long, long, long, long, long); +: (native "libcrypto.so" "SHA1" '(B . 20) "abcd" 4 0) +-> (129 254 139 254 135 87 108 62 203 34 66 111 142 87 132 115 130 145 122 207) </code></pre> -<p>which accepts a symbol name as the first argument, and up to 5 numbers. -<code>lisp()</code> calls that symbol with the five numbers, and expects a -numeric return value. "Numbers" in this context are 64-bit scalars, and may not -only represent integers, but also pointers or other encoded data. See also -<code><a href="refE.html#errno">errno</a></code> and <code><a -href="refL.html#lisp">lisp</a></code>. - <dt><a name="need"><code>(need 'cnt ['lst ['any]]) -> lst</code></a> <dt><code>(need 'cnt ['num|sym]) -> lst</code> <dd>Produces a list of at least <code>cnt</code> elements. When called without diff --git a/doc/refS.html b/doc/refS.html @@ -818,7 +818,8 @@ pointer obtained by calling functions like <code>malloc()</code>. The second argument <code>any</code> is a <a href="refN.html#natResult">result specification</a>, while all following <a href="refN.html#natItem">initialization items</a> are stored in the structure -pointed to by the first argument. +pointed to by the first argument. See also <a href="native.html">Native C +Calls</a>. <pre><code> : (scl 2) diff --git a/ersatz/picolisp.jar b/ersatz/picolisp.jar Binary files differ. diff --git a/src/vers.h b/src/vers.h @@ -1 +1 @@ -static byte Version[4] = {3,1,0,4}; +static byte Version[4] = {3,1,0,5}; diff --git a/src64/version.l b/src64/version.l @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@ -# 30apr12abu +# 09may12abu # (c) Software Lab. Alexander Burger -(de *Version 3 1 0 4) +(de *Version 3 1 0 5) # vi:et:ts=3:sw=3